Chapter 1


Themes


One theme chapter one consists of is, “The Interaction Between Humans and the Environment.” In this chapter main points such as demographics and disease, and migration were present. Demographics were displayed how as time pass by, from ages to ages, population of people grew and expanded living through the lands of earth. This is where migration comes in. Starting from the Old Stone Age people traveled in small packs as hunters and gathering only to stay in a certain area until no resources are available.

                This leads to the main point present in the chapter which is patterns of settlement. Hunters and gatherers migrated and settled to many places by availability of resources and traveled through time because of weather change and no more things that met their needs. Until these big groups of people finally settled in many certain areas and form to what we know civilizations. Many of the civilizations had sprung up and settled near the rivers because of its easily accessible natural resources. Technology had also developed from ages to ages such as the tools used for hunting, gathering, metal working, and agriculture, and so on.

                Another theme chapter one consists of is, “Development and Interaction of Cultures.” Some main parts reached through this chapter part of this theme are religions, belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies. Religions came into play with the start of civilizations such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indian and Chinese river civilizations present in chapter one. These civilizations developed religions and rules and beliefs they follow upon. For example, Egypt followed upon the worship and idolizations of many gods.

                Developments in science and technology and the arts and architecture had developed in these civilizations. In these civilizations advancements such as astronomy and mathematics had occurred. Technology advancements in transportation, farming, building, and many more took place. These civilizations developed their own alphabets and language. Architecture was also another advancement these civilizations had, for example, the pyramids.

 

 

Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age ends in the year 12,000 B.C.E.; The Old Stone Age is most known by the use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for substances.

Picture to right: A group of hunters prey on a deer.

http://www.indiabuzzing.com/wp-content/uploads/3825_hunt.jpg

 

 

Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age is a span of several thousand years, from about 12,000 to 8000 B.C.E., where human ability to fashion stone tools and other implements improved greatly. People learned to sharpened and shape stone, to make better weapons and cutting edges. During this age, people found better ways to improve food supply by like fishing and domesticating animals. 

 

 

 

Prehistoric – is relating or belonging to the era and time before recorded history.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Civilization are societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to reproduce food surpluses, and existence of non-farming societies, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups.

 

 

 Top Picture: picture of the Catal Huyuk village.

http://leavingbabylon.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/catal2.jpg

 

Tigris-Euphrates Civilization- It was two rivers that became the basis of the wealth of the region. The soil in this land was very enriched but there was never a regular supply of water. The Sumerian city- states was based on farming and trade. The industry became an important factor in civilization. The people were known for their metal-work , woolen textiles, and pottery. Copper, tin, and timber were imported goods. In 3000 BC the invention of the wheel was created making transport easier. There were three social classes; the nobles, commoners, and slaves.

http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/tigris-euphrates.php

 

Picture Above: cuneiform- the type of writing that the Tigris Euphrates Civilization used

Egyptian Civilization- the basis for this civilization is the nile river which flows from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. The sun was a principal deity whose passage across the sky represented the eternal cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. The Egyptians are known for their famous pyramids. The pyramids were tombs for the pharaohs are were built because pharaohs believed in immortality.

http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcivile.shtml

Chinese River Valley Civilization- 7000 to 5000 BCE. Agricultural villages appeared and grew along the yellow and Yangzi rivers. The Xia, the Shang, and the Zhou Dynasties are the three dynasties that make us the Chinese River Valley Civilizations. The Xia Dynasty is the first of the dynasties and reigned from 2200- 1766 BCE. The Shang dynasty was the second dynasty which included more advanced technology such as metallurgy and horse-drawn chariots, reigned from 1766-1122 BCE. The Zhou Dynasty was built 1122-256 BCE and was best known for the articulation of the concept of the Mandate of Heaven as a justification for the overthrow of an unpopular and unsuccessful dynasty

Shang Dynasty- The Shang dynasty was the second0 dynasty which included more advanced technology such as metallurgy and horse-drawn chariots, reigned from 1766-1122 BCE.

Jews- Abraham the founder of the Hebrew race, was a Semite. The Jews started in the Middle East. They are a also a nation that follows the religion of Judaism.

Band - was a level of social organization that was normally consisted of 20 to 30 nomadic hunters and gatherers. The labor was divided on a gender of basis such as the men were the hunters while the women were the gatherers. 

 Hunting and Gathering - was an old system where a group of people which is usually the men go hunting while the other group which is usually women go gathering. Agriculture was a new thing at this time, so the people were having a hard time adjusting to this so they combined a bit of agriculture with a considerable reliance on the system of hunting and gathering.

http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/st-plains/images/he6.html 

  A group of men and women hunting and gathering.

 Nomads - are a group of people who move around and never settle permanently in one location. They like to roam the land and move from one place to another. There are three different types of nomads : hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, and "peripatetic nomads". The hunter-gatherers just hunt and gather what they can find and use them, and the pastoral nomads raise herds and move them around with them in patterns. Lastly, the peripatetic nomads offer the skills of a craft or trade to those that travel with them, and they are also the most common in industrialized nations. 

 Ideographic - or ideographs are pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts, and this is typical of Chinese writing. These are the advanced writings of the Chinese art or writings. The Chinese gradually improved in many things such as technology, pottery, riding horses, and writing. An ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concepts.

 

Neolithic Revolution is the time where technological innovations and changes in human organization began which led to the development of agriculture. It was the learning of new agriculture methods which was difficult. There was resistance to change from the people who followed hunting and gathering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metal Working - is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. Metal working was extremely useful to agricultural and herding societies. People who had specialized in metal working exchange their tools with farmer’s food. Knowledge of metal working had branched out to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe.

 

 

 

Catal Huyuk – is a Neolithic Village in southern Turkey which was founded about 7000 B.C.E. and was unusually large, covering about 32 acres. Houses were made of mud bricks set in timber frameworks. In houses religious images were of powerful male hunters and “mother goddesses,” were present and devoted to agricultural fertility. By 5500 B.C.E. important production activities developed in the village such as those skilled in tool making and jewelry. Large villages such as Catal Huyuk ruled over smaller communities which meant that some families began to specialize in politics, and military forces were organized. By 3000 B.C.E., Catal Huyuk had become part of a civilization.

 

 

 River Valley Civilizations – One of the first civilizations founded in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates River, had emerged in a part of the Middle East called Mesopotamia. Another river valley civilization had emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E., which supported large cities including Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Indus River people had trading contact with Mesopotamia, but developed their own distinctive alphabet and artistic forms. But infiltrations of the Indo-Europeans, plus natural disasters had resulted in destruction to the culture and language of the civilization. Another civilization along the Huanghe (Yellow River) on China had developed. Though said to developed in isolation, some overland

Sumerians- one of the earliest urban societies to emerge in the world, more than 5000 years ago. They developed a writing system called cuneiform.

http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.html

Photo above: Shows how the Sumerians worked

Indian- River Valley Civilization- 3300 BC to 1700 BC. This civilization is also known by the name of Harappa because it was the first city to be excavated. The city was divided into 12 major blocks. The basic unit of city planning was individual household and the main occupation was agriculture. Their agriculture was highly productive and they generated surplus.

Neolithic Age - was the New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E. This was a time where there were several dramatic changes around the world such as the creation of agriculture and the creation of cities. 

 Agriculture was one of the changes that helped the people because the main source of food was mostly hunting before agriculture was found. And with agriculture the people were less likely to go hungry when game was hard to find.

Bronze Age - was from about 4000 B.C.E. to 1500 B.C.E., and this was when the bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East. At 1500 B.C.E., iron started to replace the bronze tools. This age is also a period characterized by the use of copper and bronze to manufacture tools and weapons. 

 Slash and burn agriculture - was created in order for agricultural people to move around to different places for agriculture. The person would stay on that land til the soil is depleted of nutrition. This is a system that existed in many parts of the world, and people would burn off trees in an area, farm intensively for a few years until the soil was depleted, and then move on and returning to the same sites every 20 to 30 years. 

 Babylonians - was an empire that unified all of Mesopotamia from around 1800 B.C.E. and the empire collapsed around 1600 B.C.E. The Babylonians helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East during their conquest under the rule of King Hammurabi. Hammurabi brought many rules and regulations to his empire, and he also had a code that said he would cause justice to prevail in the land by destroying the wicked and evil of the empire.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nomads_near_Namtso.jpg 

  A family of nomads living out in the plains.


 http://www.muiniskw.org/pgCulture4a.htm 

  A Chinese ideograph.


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