Chapter 18

The Rise of Russia 


State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict

• Political structures and forms of governance

The political structure changed as Peter the Great took over Russia, and what he wanted was Russia becoming greatly influenced by the Western Europe. He created a secret police to prevent bureaucrats dissents, and created a more well defined military hierarchy using the Western organizational principles.

• Empires

The capital, once Moscow, became one of the Baltic city, St. Petersburg

• Nations and nationalism

The Russian nation had westernization took place, and it had several features that were compared with imitation process in other societies.

People followed Serfdom to keep a figurative nation

• Revolts and revolutions

Pugachev rebellion led by Pugachev, that once took over Southern Russia, but got plundered by Catherine the Great

• Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations

Russia was setting up a system of serfdom to very regions that contain landlords and serfs, and maintained the structure.


Ivan III (the Great): Became king at age 22 when his father died. He reigned for 46 years; in that time he refused to pay tribute to the Tatars, and over the years managed to drive the Mongols out of Russia. His kingship fell to his son Vasili, when Ivan died in 1505. 


Third Rome: -Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires;
-based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453


Ivan IV (the Terrible): Took the throne at age 17, and immediately took the title of Tsar of All Russia, telling people that he was the only leader of Russia, and that his will would not be questioned. He is most notably remembered for ordering the construction of St. Basil's Cathedral, and blinding the architect so that nothing so beautiful may be built again.  




Boyars: - Russian aristocrats, commonly corrupt, power hungry political figures.


Cossacks: - Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in the south; combined agriculture with military conquests, spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.


Time of Troubles: -this time period followed the death of Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) which was without heir early in 17th century
-lasted from 1604-1613, when a new tsar was finally selected
-the boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority
-ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613, which was the start of the Romanov dynasty, that would rule Russia until the great revolution of 1917


Romanov dynasty: Dynasty elected in 1613 at the end of the Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917 




Alexis Romanov: Son of Michael Romanov, ascended the throne at age 16 when his father died. Alexis's main accomplishment was resuming the Orthadox practice of state control over the church. Many conservatives became dissident and formed the Old Believers, who were immediately banished to Siberia to help further Russia's colonization.





Peter I (the Great): The son of Alexis, Peter was one of Russia's most radical leaders, seeking to adopt as much aspects of the Western culture as possible without turning Russia into the West. Peter is known for imitating the military organization of the West, creating special forces to put down rebellions, and one of the first secret polices to spy on dissidents. Economically, Peter greatly enhanced Russia's mining industry, so much so that it was able to finance a large and capable military force.  

 St. Petersburg: -The capital of Russia that became the capital by the tsarist autocracy of Peter the Great

-Peter I commemorated Russia's shift of interest westward by moving the capital from Moscow

-New Baltic city that he named St. Petersburg

 Catherine the Great: 

-The wife of Peter III who took matters in hand because her husband was retarded

-defended the powers of central monarch

-put down a vigorous peasant uprising, led by Emelian Pugachev

-flirted with the ideas of the French enlightenment

-imported several French philosophers for visits and patronizing the arts and sciences

Partition of Poland: 

-Three partitions, in 1772, 1793, and 1795, eliminated Poland as an independent state

-Russia held the lion's share of the spoils

-showed Russia's involvement in European affairs 


- land paid by peasant to his lord either in kind of in money

-By the 1700's, market development and major agricultural expansion into the black soil region

- produced regional economic specialization, extending to Moscow.

Pugachev rebellion: -led by Emelian Pugachev, occurred from the 17th century onward

-Pugachev, a cossack chieftain who claimed to be the legitimate tsar, promised an end to serfdom, taxation, and military conscription along with the abolition of the landed aristocracy.

-His forces roamed over Southern Russia until they were defeated by Catherine's army 

Westernization: -The Russian tsars attempts to streamline the Russia's small bureaucracy and alter military structure by using Western organizational principles.

-Creation of well defined military hierarchy while developing functionally specialized bureaucratic departments

Serfdom: -So called "the life of east Europe's masses", which was when the power of the nobility over the serfs increased steadily

-gave the government a way to satisfy the nobility and regulate peasants when the government itself lacked the bureaucratic means to extend direct controls over the common people

-extended accordingly as new territories were added after a period of free farming 


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