Chapter 22 (Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change)


Interaction between humans and the environment
- Technological development caused by the trade between Europe
- Glass, carpet, tapestry manufacturing, cotton textiles….

Development and Interaction of Cultures
- There were barely interaction of cultures between Asia and Europe
- Europe failed to convert Asia to Christianity
- Only affected minor part of Asia: Philippine
- Literature growth in Ming dynasty

State-building, Expansion, and Conflict

- Europe became only the part of the network
- Zhenghe of Ming dynasty attempted to explore widely, but the expedition was banned
- Nobunaga and Toyotomo had unsuccessful invasion of other countries

Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economy
- The Asian Sea-Trading Network

Development and Transformation of Social Structures
- Hongwu sought to improve the lives of the peasantry by agriculture-aiding public works, opening new and untaxed lands, lowering forced labor demands, and promoting handicraft industries supplementing household incomes
- Hongwu’s effort failed
- Women had no power

- Women were confined to the household and barred from official positions



1. Asian sea trading network: Prior to intervention of Europeans, it consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; China based on paper, porcelain, and silks. This trading system stretched thousands of miles from the Middle East and Africa along all the coasts of the giant Asian Continent. In between or on the fringes of the three great manufacturing centers were areas such as Japan, mainland kingdoms, and island states of Southeast Asia and port cities of east Africa that fed raw materials into trading network.



2. Goa: Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on western India coast; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network

  • In 1550, Portuguese captured Goa
  • Ÿ Served both as naval bases for Portuguese fleets patrolling Asian waters and as factories, or points where spices and other products could be stored until they were shipped to Europe. 

3. Ormuz: Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on western India coast; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network

  •  In 1507, Portuguese captured Ormuz
  • Served both as naval bases for Portuguese fleets patrolling Asian waters and as factories, or points where spices and other products could be stored until they were shipped to Europe.


4. Malacca: Portuguese factory of fortified trade-town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southern eastern Asian islands.

  •   In 1411, Portuguese captured Malacca.
  •   Served both as naval bases for Portuguese fleets patrolling Asian waters and as factories, or points where spices and other products could be stored until they were shipped to Europe.

5. Batavia: Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java

  •  The latter location, which was much closer to the island sources of key spices
  • Ÿ  Improved European knowledge of Asian geography
  • Ÿ  The Dutch decision to concentrate on the monopoly control of certain spices rather than on Asia trade more generally.

 6. Treaty of Gijanti (1757): Signed in 1757; reduced the remaining independent Japanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India company; allowed the Dutch to monopolize java's coffee production


7. Luzon: Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort

  • Ÿ  The conquest of Luzon and northern islands was facilitated by the fact that the animistic inhabitants lived in small states the Spanish could subjugate one by one. 

8. Mindanao: Southern island of Philippines; was ruled by a single kingdom whose Muslim rulers were determined to resist Christian dominance

  • Ÿ Dramatically underscores the limits of the Europeans’ ability to project their power on land in the era

9. Francis Xavier: Was a Spanish Jesuit who went to India, in the 1540’s, and converted tens of thousands of poor, low-caste fishers and untouchables to Christianity

  • Because he and other Franciscan and Dominican missionaries mingled with the low-caste and untouchable, the upper class refused to make contact with these men, making it impossible to convert them

10. Robert Di Nobli(1534-1582): Italian Jesuit; learned several Indian languages including Sanskrit; donned garments worn by Indian brahmans and adopted a vegetarian diet; resulted in the ability to win over upper-caste Hindus

  • Ÿ  Reasoned that if he succeeded in Christianizing the high-caste Hindus, they would then bring the lower Hindu castes into the fold
  • Ÿ His strategy was undone by the refusal of high-caste Hindu converts to worship with low-caste groups and to give up many of their traditional beliefs and religious rituals

11. Hongwu: First Ming emperor in 1368 (for 30 years); originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang

  • Drove out Mogol influence Yuanzhang drove out Mongol influence such as Mongol dress, names, and palaces and administrative buildings were raided and sacked
  • Restored position of Scholar-gentry
  • Ÿ Scholars well versed in the Confucian classics were again appointed to the very highest positions in the imperial government
  • Ÿ   The civil service examination system (that Mongols had discontinued), was reinstated and greatly expanded

 12. The Water Margin, Monkey, and The Golden Lotus: Considered classics during their time; continue to set the standard for Chinese prose literature today

13. Zhenghe: Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of seven major expeditions over seas

  • Included the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming Emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1423
  • Early expeditions were confined largely to southeast Asian seas and kingdoms; last three expeditions reached as far as Persia, southern Arabia, and the east coast of Africa

14. Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall: Along with Adam Schall; Jesuit Scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientists

  • Won few converts to Christianity
  • Spent most of their time in the imperial city, correcting faulty calendars, forging cannons, fixing clocks, and astounding the Chinese scholar-gentry with the accuracy of their instruments

15. Chongzhen: Last of the Ming Emperors 

  • Lost because he did not take the rebellions seriously until enemy soldiers were attacking the walls of the Forbidden City 
  • Hung himself after his wife committed suicide and his attempt to kill his youngest daughter

16. Manchu: Zurchen people from the northeast of the Great Wall 

  • Seized power after the collapse of the Ming 
  • Created the Quing dynasty 

17. Nobunaga: First Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms 
  • 1573: deposed the last Ashikaga shogun 
  • Unified much of central Honshu 
  • 1582: Captured and killed by one of his generals 

18. Toyotomo Hideyoshi: General under Nobunaga
  • Succeeded as leading military power in central Japan 
  • Attempted to break power of daimyos (Also wanted to punish those who had betrayed Nobunaga) 
  • 1590: Constructed alliances to make him the military master of Japan 
  • Dreamed of ruling: India and China 
  • Showed threat to: Spanish living in Philippines 
  • 1592 & 1597: Attacks on Korea 
  • 1598: Died 


19. Edo: Tokugawa capital 

  • Modern-day Tokyo 
  • Center of Tokugawa Shogunate 

20. Deshima: Island port in Nagasaki Bay 

  • 1640s: After this time period the port open to foreigners (Dutch)
  • Limited to certain areas 

21. School of National Learning: Emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influence. 

22. Caravels: Portuguese vessels - Key development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia 

  • Slender, Long-hulled 
  • Highly maneuverable 
  • Able to sail against the wind 

23. Mercantilism: Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economics in order to improve tax revenues

  • popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe  

24. Factories: European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants

  • utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.

 25. Dutch trading empire: The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified town and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.

26. Friars: Members of Roman Catholic religious orders.  


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