Chapter 23: The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914


Themes

Humans and the Environment
  • Industrialization increased human impact on the environment. Rising pollution levels were a result.
  • Growth in population known as the population revolution also increased human impact on the environment.
Development and Interaction of Cultures
  • A scientific, secular worldview became most important. This was caused by Enlightenment thinking, technological and scientific advancement of Industrial Revolution, and theories of scholars like Charles Darwin.
  • Nationalism became a powerful political and culture force.
  • Pace of cultural change sped up. New artistic and literary trends emerged. These encouraged breaking rules and defying conventions.
State-Building , Expansion, and Conflict
  • Greater popular representation arose. It began with American and French Revolutions.
  • The technological, economic, and military rise of the West altered balance of power.
  • The US broke away from English rule. In 1800s, it dominated the North American continent and became a world power.
  • Diplomatic tensions, nationalism, and competition over colonies made it increasingly likely that the nations of Europe would go to war. Alliances such as the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente formed. World War I resulted in 1914.
Economic Systems
  • Economic life was transformed by industrialization, which displaced agriculture as the largest and most important part of the economy.
  • The dominant mode of economic organization in the West became free market capitalism.
Social Structures
  • After the revolutions of 1848, politics in Europe and the West became increasingly representative. By the end of the century, Great Britain, France, and the US had become democracies.
  • Industrialization changed class structures. The aristocracy, whose status was based on land and family prestige, faded. The proportion of peasants and farmers in the lower class shrank. The middle class expanded. The proletariat, the industrial working class was formed.
  • In the West, greater awareness of the unequal treatment of women spread. This was due to Enlightenment thinking and active roles women played in American and French Revolutions.
  • The Industrial Revolution altered the conditions under which women worked. It shifted the workplace away from the war to mines, factories, and other areas away from home. This shift created a domestic sphere and a separate working sphere from the home.
  • Strong women's movements occurred in Europe, Canada, and the US. They worked for suffrage, equal opportunity to work, equal pay, temperance, and other causes.
Population revolution: A huge population increase occurred in Western Europe beginning about 1730. This was the result of better border policing and improved nutrition from use of the potato. The population revolution was also force of change that led to political revolution as well as a prelude to industrialization.

Proto-industrialization: This was the initial shift away from an agricultural economy as domestic manufacturing expanded. Many people began producing textiles and metal products at home in a capitalist system, which depended on urban merchants. As a result, manufactured goods increased and the market for those goods expanded. Proto-industrialization allowed new technologies to grow and marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

American Revolution (1775): rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies. American colonists refused to pay British taxes (especially without representation in Parliament). American colonists, with help from the French government, defeated the British and formed the independent United States based on new Enlightenment principles such as checks and balances and formal guarantees of individual freedoms. The American Revolution began the long process of expanding political representation and giving people a greater voice of politics.

French Revolution (1789): Bourbon monarchy was overthrown through a revolution beginning in 1789.The French Revolution had four main causes.

First, there was a wide social and economic gap between ordinary citizens and the elite. Next, there was an unfair tax system in which Catholic clergy and aristocracy were exempt. The middle class was also frustrated because they were barred from social advancement. Last, the French Revolution was caused in part by the Enlightenment, whose philosophers argued for fair government and equal treatment. 

The French Revolution created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French empire. It became the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe. Additionally, it began the long process of expanding political representation and giving people a greater voice of politics.

Louis XVI: Bourbon ruler of France who lost control of Parliament. Louis XVI could not fix France's bankruptcy because he was in debt, unable to tax the aristocracy and clergy, and burdened with a wife who spent lavishly. He was executed on the guillotine during the radical phase of the French Revolution.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: This was adopted during the French Revolution and proclaimed the equality of French citizens and freedom of thought. The Declaration enacted natural rights to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." It also stated that the church and state should be separated. Additionally, the Declaration became a source document for later liberal movements and began the long process of expanding political representation and giving people a greater voice in politics.
Guillotine: This was created by Doctor Joseph-Ignace Guillotin as a method of humane Enlightenment execution. The guillotine was widely used during the French Revolution on thousands of people, especially during the Reign of Terror, and became a symbol of bloodthirsty revolutionaries. It served as a symbol of revolutionary blood thirst.
Maximilien Robespierre: leader of the radical phase of the French Revolution. Robespierre earned his law degree in 1781 and pushed Enlightenment ideals. He headed the prosecution of the king and took leadership of the government, proposing a new constitution that abolished slavery, and proclaimed universal adult suffrage and military conscription. Robespierre was arrested and executed by moderate revolutionaries. He symbolized the single minded revolutionary.
Napoleon Bonaparte: army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution. Bonaparte turned the revolutionary republic into an authoritarian empire with himself as emperor. He maintained most of the revolution’s changes.

Bonaparte modernized France and created the Bank of France and Civil Law Code. Although the long, costly wars he initiated killed millions, they also spread key revolutionary legislation and encouraged nationalism. At its height, the French Empire controlled most of western Europe.

Bonaparte's downfall was caused by an inability to counter British naval power, guerilla wars in Spain and Portugal, and an overambitious invasion of Russia. He was exiled in 1815.

Congress of Vienna: Countries met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power and prevent further revolution. After the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars, most politicians believed any kind of liberalism led to chaos and war. As a result, the Congress of Vienna reached a conservative settlement.

Liberalism: political ideology that flourished in 19th-century Western Europe that promoted limited state interference in private life and representation of landholding people in government. Liberalism urged the importance of constitutional rule and freedom of religion, and mainly represented the growing middle class. It challenged conservatism and created political protest.
Radicals: advocated greater and broader voting rights than liberals and urged reforms favoring the lower classes. Radicalism included socialism.

Socialism: rooted in the political theory of Karl Marx. Socialism theorizes that all class struggle comes from the evils of capitalism. It attacks private property and promotes state control all of the means of production to end the capitalistic exploitation of the working class. Revolution is an inevitable part of history. Socialism includes communism. Leaders in many countries (especially Germany) translated socialism doctrine into practical political parties. However, many people in Western society took revolutionary message literally and were terrified of socialism.

Nationalism: European 19th-century doctrine created during the radical phase of the French Revolution. It maintained the importance of national unity and loyalty to the nation that stemmed from a common ethnicity or culture. 

Greek Revolution: rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820 and in Spain. The Greek Revolution was important in the gradual fall of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans
French Revolution of 1830: second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty that installed a new king and a slightly more liberal monarchy.
Belgian Revolution of 1830: produced Belgian independence from the Dutch, and established a liberal regime.

Reform Bill of 1832: British bill that extended the vote to most middle-class men. The Reform Bill of 1832 was evidence of Britain's participation in process of political change.

James Watt: a Scottish inventor that devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries especially in textiles and coal mining. The steam engine was an important invention for the Industrial Revolution as it was powerful and cost effective.

Factory system: system in which the means of production would be controlled at one single site. Each worker performed a certain task to construct a product, which improved productivity, but also required greater organization and discipline.
Luddites: workers in Britain who destroyed machines, particularly mechanized looms. The workers protested working conditions and low wages. They believed the machines were replacing them in labor and leaving them out of work. The workers were named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd. In response, the government sided with the business owners, executed some of the workers, and enacted harsh laws against any further action.
Chartist Movement: British artisans and workers attempted to gain the vote during the 1830s and 1840s, believing that a democratic government would benefit them, but were unsuccessful. The Chartist Movement was a response to Industrialization.
French Revolution of 1848: permanently overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830 and briefly established the 2nd French Republic. The French Revolution of 1848 also led to revolutions in Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary.
Revolutions of 1848: nationalist and liberal movements in Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. Causes include popular impatience with conservative rule, social and economic pressures caused by Industrialization, and a long series of economic downturns and bad harvests. Urban artisans wanted the government to provide jobs for the unemployed, and women pushed for more rights.

The revolutions demonstrated growing political importance of nationalism. It laid foundation for unification of Italy and Germany. It reiterated the message that the political, social, and economic demands of ordinary people had to be taken seriously.

However, revolutions were put down quickly. Failure of the revolution drew the revolutionary era in western Europe to a close. It taught many liberals that revolution was too risky and that more gradual methods should be used. Many governments also installed better riot control police in response to the revolutions.

Louis Pasteur: discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him, pasteurization. This led to better sanitary regulations and procedures by doctors. Deaths of women in child birth were reduced. These low death rates promoted fairly stable population levels.
Benjamin Disraeli: British politician; granted the vote to working-class males in 1867. Disraeli was an example of conservative politicians, who worked to reduce the need for political revolution by keeping stability through reform.
Count Camillo di Cavour: architect of Italian unification in 1858. Cavour created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the King of Piedmont, significantly reducing the political power of the Catholic pope. Cavour was an example of the important new uses of nationalism.
Otto von Bismarck: conservative prime minister of Prussia. Bismark unified Germany under the Prussian king in 1871. The resulting German Empire had a national parliament with a lower house based on universal male suffrage and an upper house that favored conservative government. Bismark was an example of the important new uses of nationalism.

American Civil War (1861-1865): fought to prevent secession of the southern states. The Civil War was the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution such as industrial weaponry and transport systems. It resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.

Trasformismo: political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo. Trasformismo, also known as transformism, was an example of a system in which liberal and conservative ministries alternated without major changes of internal policy.

"Social question": issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. The social question became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Karl Marx: German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production. Marx believed in the inevitability of social revolution, which would pit the middle glass against the proletariat. The final stage of history would be a proletarian dictatorship. Marx considered this an economic state of perfect justice, equality, and prosperity. Therefore, he advocated the overthrow of capitalism.

Revisionism: socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation. Revisionists believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through peaceful democratic means.

Feminist movements: sought legal and economic gains for women such as equal access to professions and higher education. Feminist movements later focused on suffrage, which is the right to vote. They won much support from middle class women.

The most vocal women's movements was Britain's, led by Emmeline Pankhurst. Major figures in the US movement were Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

However, almost no countries gave women the right to vote until late in World War I or afterward.

Mass leisure culture: an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution. Decreased time at work and better wages offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time. These included vacation trips, team sports, and comics. The rise of a mass leisure culture demonstrated growing secularism.
Charles Darwin: biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival. As a result, faith in traditional religion was eroded. A more secular worldview was encouraged.
Albert Einstein: formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles. In about 1900, Einstein issued the theory of relativity, which opened new questions in the field of physics.
Sigmund Freud: Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses. Freud significantly advanced the new science of psychology.
Romanticism: 19th western European artistic and literary movement. Romanticism held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature. It sought to portray passions, not calm reflection. In addition, romanticism encouraged violating traditional standards.
American exceptionalism: historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation
Triple Alliance: alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century. The Triple Alliance was part of the European balance of power system before World War I
Triple Entente: agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907. The Triple Entente was part of the European balance of power system before World War I.

Balkan nationalism: movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans. It provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.

Industrial Revolution: series of changes in economy of Western nations. This included integration of industrialization (mass production of goods by means of machine power) as key part of the economy and rise of capitalism as dominant economic system.

The Industrial Revolution was stimulated by population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, the Commercial Revolution, and development of new means of transportation.

The first stage began with integration of Watt’s steam engine into textile, coal mining industries. The next stage involved universal application of steam power to all sectors of economy.

Key trends include modernization of transport (i.e. steamships and railroads), modernization of communications (i.e. telegraph), factory system, and concept of interchangeable parts.

The Industrial Revolution occurred first and most thoroughly in western Europe. Britain led the world in industrial production for most of 1800s. By the end of the century, Germany and US were surpassing Britain.

Age of Revolution: period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements of change up to 1848. Causes include the Enlightenment, commercialization, population revolution, and proto-industrialization.
Conservative: Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals, advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church

Imperialism: A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force


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