Kellogg-Briand Pact:

-A multinational treaty sponsored by American and French diplomats that outlawed war

-Called the General Treaty for the Renunciation of the War or the World Peace Act

-Signed on August 27, 1928

-Binding treaty

Interwar period:

-Marked as turmoil, as Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War.

-Radical change in the international order.

- League of Nations was created with the intention of maintaining world security and peach and encouraging economic growth between member countries

The Roaring Twenties: Great social and economic changes were the hallmark of this decade.

Cubist movement: Artistic style rendering familiar objects in geometric shapes; headed by Pablo Picasso, who was influenced by African art.


-radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology.

-seek rejuvenation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people in national identity

Benito Mussolini: 

-Italian politician that led the National Fascist Party

-key figures in the creation of fascism

Settler societies: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand; forged separate “autonomous communities” within the British empire, called the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Zaibatsu: In Japan, industrial corporations with close government cooperation that expanded rapidly in this era into shipbuilding and other heavy industries.

Porfirio Díaz: Mexico’s long-serving dictator who resisted political reforms; his policies triggered the Mexican Revolution.

Pancho Villa: Mexican revolutionary who led guerrilla fighting in the North; as commander. Pursued unsuccessfully by the U.S. government in 1913. Retired in 1920.

Emiliano Zapata: Mexican revolutionary who led guerrilla fighting in the South; motto was “Tierra y Libertad”; demanded land reform.

Soldaderas: Women who were guerrilla fighters in the Mexican Revolution.

Victoriano Huerta: Sought to impose a Díaz-type dictatorship; forced from power by Villa and Zapata.

Alvaro Obregon: Emerged as Mexico’s leader at the end of the revolution; wrote a new constitution that promised land reforms.

Lazaro Cardenas: President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.

Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco: World-renowned artists who depicted glorified versions of Mexico’s Indian heritage and potential Marxist future in murals.

Cristeros: Conservative peasant movement in the 1920s in Mexico; backed by the Catholic church and many politicians; resisted the secularization of the culture and government.

Party of the Industrialized Revolution (PRI): This Mexican political party dominated politics from the 1930s to the end of the century.

Alexander Kerensky: Leader of the provisional government in Russia after the fall of the tsar; kept Russia in World War I and resisted major reforms; overthrown by Bolsheviks at the end of 1917.

Bolsheviks: Violent, radical wing of the Social Democrats in Russia, led by Vladimir Lenin; took power from provisional government; later renamed “Communists.”

Russian Civil War (1918-1921): Millions died in the struggle between the Reds (pro-Communist forces) and Whites (an amalgam of non-Communists); the Reds won, largely because of the organizational skills of Leon Trotsky.

Leon Trotsky: Lenin deputy who organized the Red Army during the civil war and later lost a power struggle to Stalin.

New Economic Policy: Lenin’s temporary measure that allowed some capitalism within a Communist framework; food production increased under this program; ended by Stalin.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Name of the Moscow-based multi-ethnic Communist regime from 1923 to 1991.

Supreme Soviet: Parliament under the U.S.S.R. that had many of the trappings but few of the powers of its Western counterparts.

Joseph Stalin: Assistant to Lenin who beat out Trotsky for undisputed control of the U.S.S.R.after Lenin’s death; installed the nationalistic “socialism in one country” program, collectivization, and widespread purges.

May Fourth Movement: Popular 1919 uprising in China against Japanese interference and for Western-style government that featured intellectuals and students as its leaders; sank under the weight of problems facing China in the early 20th century.

Li Dazhao: Headed Marxist study circle at University of Beijing; saw peasants as harbingers of Communist revolution in China; influenced Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong: Leader of Chinese Communist Party and eventual dictator of that country.

Guomindang: Nationalist party in China; it was the Communist Party’s greatest rival, yet the Guomindang and Communists forged an alliance against Japanese aggression; the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, it failed to implement most of the domestic programs it proposed.

Whampoa Military Academy: Established in China with Soviet help; it gave the Nationalists a military dimension previously missing; first leader was Chiang Kai-shek.

Chiang Kai-shek: Successor to Sun as leader of the Nationalists; fierce opponent of the Communists, yet he formed an alliance with them to fight Japan.


Long March: To escape the Nationalists, 90,000 Mao supporters traveled thousands of miles in 1934 to remote regions; solidified Mao’s leadership and created much of his myth.

Syndicalism: Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics.

Mexican Revolution: Fought over a period of almost 10 years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

Francisco Madero: (1873 – 1913) Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Díaz; initiated revolution against Díaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913.

Mexican Constitution of 1917: Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.

Red Army: Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background.

Comintern: International office of communism under U.S.S.R. dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and the world.

Great Depression: Worldwide economic collapse that began in late 1929 and continued until the outset of World War II.

Socialism in one country: Stalin’s program to build a self-sufficient Communist state based on industrial production.

Popular Front: Liberal, socialist, and Communist parties in France that forged a short-lived alliance in the 1930s.

New Deal: The United States’ answer to the Great Depression, consisting of government assistance to people affected by the crisis and of government reform of economic institutions.

Fascism: Created in Italy by Mussolini and expanded in Germany by Hitler, this political and economic movement promoted socialist programs combined with authoritarianism.

Nazi: Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party; under the guise of political unity, the Nazis forged a totalitarian state.

Gestapo: Hitler’s secret police that imprisoned and killed his real and imagined opposition.

Anschluss: Hitler’s union with Austria.

Appeasement: Britain and France’s policy of compromise with Hitler and Mussolini.

Spanish Civil War: Fascists led by General Franco fought supporters of the existing republic in the 1930s; Germany and Italy aided the victorious Franco.

Import substitution industrialization: Cut off from supplies it had imported before the Great Depression, Latin America began to produce for itself through the rapid expansion of industrialization.

Syndicalism: In Latin America, organizing labor for the purpose of gaining control of political power.

Tragic Week: In Argentina in 1919, the government brutally repressed labor strikes.

Corporatism: In Latin America, a movement aimed at curbing capitalism and Marxism that proposed using the state as a mediator between different social and economic groups.

Getulio Vargas: President of Brazil who imposed a pro-Western Fascist-like authoritarian regime.

Juan Peron: Argentina’s leader who, like Vargas, nationalized key industries and led through a combination of charisma and intimidation.

Training to endure hardship: Term used to describe the Japanese policy established in Korea to induce the people there to cooperate with the conqueror’s wishes.

Kulaks: The relatively wealthy peasants in the Soviet Union who were starved and murdered by the millions under Stalin’s direction.

Collectivization: Soviet policy of eliminating private ownership of farmland and creating large state-run farms.

Five-Year Plan: State planning of industrial production in the Soviet Union.

Socialist Realism: School of art in the U.S.S.R. that emphasized heroic idealizations of workers, soldiers, and peasants.

Politburo: “Political Bureau” in the U.S.S.R. that was titularly the executive committee but in reality was, especially under Stalin, a rubber-stamp organization.

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