Chapter 30 

A Second Global Conflict and 

the End of the European World Order

After the first World War, the second World War was fueled by several deliberate aggression from Germany, Italy, and Japan. The failure of the League of Nations encouraged the aggressive countries like Germany to expand their power. Competition and world power of the nations was another cause of the second World War, and this time unlike the first World War, Asian and African countries joined in.


Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict

• Political structures and forms of governance

Allied Powers

Great Britain-Constitutional monarchy/One of the most powerful navy force in the world/Tried to avoid conflicts with Germany

Russia- Totalitarianism(Stalinism) / State recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public/Massive land

U.S.-Democratic republic/Tried to stay out of war, staying neutral like the preceding war/Played important role on WWII

Axis Powers

Germany-Fascism (Nazis-a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power)/Aggressive nation, caused the Second World War

Japan-Constitutional monarchy based on British parliamentary system/Powerful nation in Asia at that time period/Attacked Pearl Harbor

Italy-Fascism (Mussolini dictatorship)/Promised the Italian citizens of World power after the war and stayed close to Germany


• Nations and nationalism

Nationalism was another cause of the WWII like the preceding war. 

-Nationalistic tensions

-Competition

-Unresolved issues between nations because of nationalism 

-Resentments


• Revolts and revolutions

Russian Revolution

 -Russian revolution is also known as Bolshevik Revolution.

-It was a revolution for peace, bread, and land.

-The economic reason to this revolution is that so many people joined the army to fight World War I that there were hardly any people left to work to produce food

Chapter 30 Key Terms 

National Socialist (Nazi) Party

Fascist party of Adolf Hitler in Germany. The significance of the Nazi party lies in their belief that mankind should be divided into various classes. Hitler claimed that nations that could not defend their territory did not deserve it.

Winston Churchill

Inspirational leader of Britain in World War II. Churchill had the backbone to stand up and fight Hitler when the odds were heavily against Britain. He also raised the morale of the British in their darkest hour. Churchill also secured more help from America (by far) than a neutral country should give to a belligerent in a war situation.

Battle of Britain

Failed German attempt to bomb Britain into submission in WWII. British grit and technology outlasted Hitler. It showed that England was going to keep on fighting instead of giving in to Germany. It was the first loss that the Germany suffered after a string of magnificent victories that made them seems invincible.

 

The Holocaust

Name given to the genocide of as many as 12 million people by the Nazi regime; 6 million of these were Jews. The Holocaust was notable for its especially brutal, systematic, and premeditated nature. The significance of the Holocaust is that it was the greatest act of hate and Antisemitism in the last thousand years or more. Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party had millions of Jews, homosexuals, Catholics, and basically anyone else who disobeyed him killed. 

Battle of the Bulge

Last German offensive on the Western Front in WWII. Its failure hastened German defeat. The significance of that this was the last battle in which the Germans had any chance to change the outcome of the war.  If they had won this battle, they might have been able to negotiate a truce.

Pearl Harbor

American outpost in Hawaii that was surprised attacked by the Japanese; triggered the official U.S. involvement in WWII. The significance of Pearl Harbor is that it is a symbol of what many consider the ultimate betrayal of one country towards another, a sneak attack and many deaths.

 

Battle of the Coral Sea

Midway Island: Turning points of the Pacific theater in WWII. Japanese advances halted after these battles. It was the first clash of carriers. It taught naval airmen how to fight aerial battles at sea. The following month came Midway, where they could put their newly discovered skills into operation.

United Nations

Successor to the League of Nations, this U.S. backed international organization had more success in all ways than its predecessor. The significance is that it develops rules in order to help achieve peaceful conclusions to problems affecting the world.

 Tehran Conference- was a strategy meeting held between Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was held in the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran and was the first of the World War II conferences held between all of the "Big Three" Allie leaders. This conference was followed by the Cairo Conference and preceded both the Yalta and Potsdam Conference. This conference was an allied war conference where later Cold War tensions first appeared. 

A picture of Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

 Yalta Conference- was the most significant of the Allied war conferences because it divided post-Nazi Europe and set the stage for the Soviet-U.S. tensions for the next 45 years, and this tension was called the Cold War. This conference was held to discuss the matters of what will happen after the war ended, and it was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. The Big Three met again at this conference.


 Potsdam Conference- was a final allied war conference in which the Soviet Union pledged to enter the war against Japan. This conference were met by Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and later, Clement Attlee, and Harry S. Truman. The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.


 Total War- is the concept in warfare in which all the industrial and civilian might of a nation is linked to strategy and tactics on the battlefield. This is a war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population. 


 Atlantic Charter- was an alliance between the United States and Britain in 1941 that pledged mutual defense and the "right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live." This charter was a pivotal policy statement that defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; free access to raw materials; reduction of trade restrictions; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force.

 Quit India Movement- was a mass civil disobedience campgains in India against the British rule in 1942, and the All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called "an orderly British withdrawal" from India. Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership was imprisoned without trial within hours after Gandhi's speech; most spent the rest of the war in prison. The British refused to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war ended.


 Muslim League- supported the partitioning of India into secular and Muslim states. The result of this political group's goal was the creation of a country named Pakistan. The Muslim League played a decisive role during the 1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in the Indian subcontinent. 


 Muhammad Ali Jinnah- was a 20th century lawyer, politician and statesman who is known as being the founder of Pakistan. He was the leader of the Muslim League and the first president of Pakistan. He served as the leader of the All-Indian Muslim League until Pakistan's independence.

 Convention Peoples Party- was founded by Nkrumah in Ghana to support independence from Britain. He organized mass rallies, strikes, and boycotts. This party is a socialist political party in Ghana, based on the ideas of former President Nkrumah. The CPP was formed in 1949 by Nkrumah to campaign for independence of the Gold Coast. It ruled Ghana from 1957 to 1966, and during the latter part of the CPP rule, the constitution was changed to make it the only legal party in Ghana, making the nation a one-party state. The party was banned after February of 1966 during a coup d'etat by the National Liberation Council. The party was reformed from some of the Nkrumah factions in 1996.

 Jomo Kenyatta- was the leader of the independence movement in Kenya, and he supported nonviolent protest. He started the Kenya African Union, and this union demanded independence for Kenya in the early 1950s through a more forceful approach. There were many protests and riots during the past several decades. 

 Land Freedom Army- was a more radical independence group in Kenya that conducted terrorism and guerrilla warfare against the colonizers. This was a military conflict that took place in Kenya between 1952 to 1960. The movement was unable to capture widespread public support, and the capture of the rebel leader Dedan Kimathi on October of 1956 signalled the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau uprising, and essentially ended the British military campaign.


 Secret Army Organization- was a short-lived, French far-right nationalist terrorist organization during the Algerian War. This Organization is a reactionary settler military group that directed its aim at Arabs and Berbers in Algeria. This organization also used army struggle in an attempt to prevent Algeria's independence. It was officially formed in Francoist Spain, in Madrid in January of 1961, as a response by some French politicians and French military officers to January of 1961.


 Afrikaner National Party- was a South African political party from 1941 to 1951,and it won complete independence from Britain and maintained minority domination over the black majority. The roots of the party can be traced back September 1939, when South Africa declared war on Germany at the start of World War II. The party was the junior partner of the Herenigde National Party and Afrikaner Party. 


 Apartheid- was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party governments of South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. This was a rigid system of racial discrimination in South Africa.


 Haganah- was a Zionist military force that spearheaded Jewish resistance to the British presence in Palestine. This was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948, which later became the core of the Israel Defense Forces. 


 Vichy- was a French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans. Vichy was used to describe the government of France which collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944, during the Second World War. 


 Kenya African Union- was the leading nationalist part in Kenya that adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s. This union demanded independence for Kenya in the early 1950s through a forceful approach. The guerrilla warfare tactics by the Land Freedom Army eventually gave the rebels the name the "Mau Mau" by the colonizers. Displeased by this acquisition Jomo Kenyatta gave his speech in 1952 to prove the Kenya African Union was not what the colonizers believed it was. Kenyatta states that the Mau Mau is an organization that promotes violence while the KAU is an organization that doesn't fight violently, but fought peacefully.


 National Liberation Front- was a radical nationalist movement in Algeria that launched a sustained guerrilla war against France in the 1950s. Success led to independence of Algeria in 1958. This is a socialist political party in Algeria, and this was set up on November 1954 as a merger of other smaller groups, to obtain independence for Algeria from France. The FLN is a continuation of the main revolutionary body that directed the war for independence against France. It was created by the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action and emergent paramilitary networks continuing the nationlist tradition of the Algerian People's Party.


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