Singapore:

one of the developing nations call the Pacific Rim and became a flourishing, independent city-state after World War II, retained a large British naval base until 1971, when Britain abandoned all pretense of power in east Asia, and grew into a vigorous free port.

Douglas MacArthur: 

controlled the American occupation government and worked quickly to destroy Japan’s wartime political structure. The results are the Japanese military forces were separated, police dispersed, officials were removed, and political prisoners released.  American authorities pushed for a democratization of Japanese society by giving women the vote, encouraging labor union, and abolishing Shintoism as a state religion.

Liberal Democratic Party:

conservative political party that monopolized Japanese government.

Republic of Korea:

:  southern half of Korea that is occupied by the United States after World War II, underwent industrial and economic growth, bolstered by an American military presence of Syngman Rhee, where the republic of Korea developed institutions that were parliamentary, but maintained a strongly authoritarian tone.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: 

Northern half of Korea, became a communists state under Kim Il-Sung, attacked South Korea to begin the Korean War hoping to impose unification on their own terms.    

Korean War: 

War between North Korea, with Soviet and Chinese allies, and South Korean, with United Nations’ forces directed by United States, the war ended in stalemate when the American administration was able to agree to an armistice.

Taiwan:

Island off the Chinese mainland that became the refuge for Chiang Kai-shek’s Guomindang regime, United States gave economic aid, the communist could not threaten because Taiwan had no navy.

Hong Kong:

British colony in China, played as a commercial and industrial center, gained increasing antimony from direct British rule, and China regains control of Hong Kong in 1997,

Hyundai: 

Major Korean industrial center, resembled the great Japanese holding companies before and after World War II and wielded great political influence, was the creation of entrepreneur Chung Ju Yung, a modern folk hero who walked 150 miles to Seoul to take his first job as a day laborer at age 16, virtually governed Korea’s southeastern coast, built ships, including petroleum supertankers, housing to low-paid workers, and schools.


Lee Kuan Yew: 

Prime minister of Korea, took office in 1965, first gained independence and held power for 30 years.

Mass Line: 

Economic policy of Mao Zedong inaugurated in 1955; led to formation of

agricultural cooperatives that then became farming collectives in 1956; peasants lost land

gained a few years earlier.

 Great Leap Forward: 

an effort to revitalize the flagging revolution by restoring its mass, rural base, and was launched by Mao and his supporters.

 Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui: 

came to power determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level, Mao’s old allies called pragmatists.

Gang of Four: 

: led by Jiang Qing and her allies who resisted the pragmatists after Mao’s death, they were arrested and sentenced to life in prison.

Tayson Rebellion:

the peasant revolution that controlled most of the country and overthrew the Nguyen and Trinh dynasties.

Nguyen Anh (Gia Long): 

fled into Mekong wilderness with supporters and others who he rallied to build a large army to launch an invasion of Tayson strongholds, then proclaimed himself as the Gai Long emperor of Vietnam in 1802.

Minh Mang:

second ruler of united Vietnam, pride himself on his knowledge of Confucian classics and his mastery of the Chinese scripts, had the audacity to criticize the brushwork of the reigning Chinese emperor, and was Gai Long’s ultra-Confucian successor.

Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD): Middle-class revolutionary organization during the

1920s; committed to violent overthrow of French colonialism; crushed by the French.

Communist Party of Vietnam: The primary nationalist party after the defeat of the VNQDD

in 1929; led from 1920s by Ho Chi Minh.

Jiang Qing: Wife of Mao Zedong; one of the Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported

the Cultural Revolution; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.

Cultural Revolution: Initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to restore his dominance over the

pragmatists; disgraced and even killed bureaucrats and intellectuals; called off in 1968.

Red Guard: Student brigades active during the Cultural Revolution in supporting Mao

Zedong’s policies.

 

Viet Minh:

communist-dominated nationalist Vietnamese movement; fought the Japanese during Word War II and the French afterwards, established liberated areas throughout the northern Red River delta, put their reform and community-building programs into effect in the areas they controlled won them support along the rural area population, efforts to provide assistance to the peasants during 1944 due to the terrible famine.

Vo Nguyen Giap:

Military commander of the Viet Minh, the victor at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, by 1945, the Viet Minh were in control of Hanoi, where Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the establishment of the independent nation of Vietnam by using guerrilla tactics which offset the advantages that first the French and later the Japanese.

Ngo Dinh Diem:

Became president of South Vietnam with United States’ support in the 1950s; overthrown by the military, with U.S. approval; tried to legitimatize his status by holding rigged elections in the south, have faultless nationalist credentials, going into exile rather than giving up the struggles against the French, mounted a serier of campaigns to eliminate by force all political rivals.

Viet Cong:

The Communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam during the Vietnamese war; were threatened with extermination; so in response, the communist regime began to send weapons to the southern team.

Pacific Rim:

Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, and limitations on dissent and instability, economic and political developments in several nations and city-states on Asia's Pacific coast echoed important elements, political authoritarianism was characteristic of most Pacific Rim states.  

Chiang Ching-kuo:

Son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen the gap between mainland-born military personnel and native Taiwanese in government ranks, emphasized personal authority more than his father.

People’s Republic of China:

Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang, 

Lin Biao:

(1907 – 1971) Chinese commander under Mao; trained at Chiang Kai-shek’s Whampoa Acadamy in the 1920s, proved more gifted than the corrupt and unskillful Nationalist generals. 

 

Party cadres:

Basis for China’s Communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels, 

People’s Liberation Army:

Chinese Communist army; administered much of country under People’s Republic of China; was indicated by the most of China was administrated by military officials after the communist came to power.

Pragmatists:

Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed Great Leap Forward.

Liu Shaoqui:

Chinese Communist pragmatist; with Deng Xiaoping, came to power in 1959 after Mao was replaced; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at local level; purged in 1966 as Mao returned to power; was influential in formulating party and governmental strategy, main role in foreign affairs after the communists had gained control.

Deng Xiaoping:

One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, and emerged as China’s most influential leader in the early 1980s; make an effort to assimilate elements of the free-enterprise system into the Chinese economy.

Dien Bien Phu:

the first Indochina war and most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control over northern Vietnam, struggle between French and Vietnamese Communist and nationalist forces for control of the small mountain near Laos that lasted for eight years.


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