Chapter 36
Globalization and Resistance: 1990-2003


In this chapter, theme 1: Interaction between humans and the environment was frequently seen. During the time of globalization, cellular phones became very prevalent. It made making almost constant contact with other parts of the world easy. Also, during the 1980s computers became increasingly efficient because of steady improvements in miniaturization. By the 1972, Email was introduced. Although it wasn’t available to everyone, it did provide global contacts for some regions that were fairly remote. Ultimately, the rapidly increasing advancement in technology was able to increase the interaction between countries and people.

Another reoccurring theme in this chapter is theme 2: Development and Interaction of Cultures. Because of global technologies, business organizations and reduced political barriers, the pace of cultural exchange and contact around the world accelerated by the 1990s. There were many occasions within a span of one year where music conductors, scientists, and artists went to different countries to attend conferences, symphonies, etc. Often times, science laboratories were filled with researchers from around the world who shared their ideas. Also, cultural globalization exposed many American movies, television shows, and holidays around the world. Much of Western beauty standards spread to youth audiences almost everywhere through television shows like MTV.  American holiday practices for holidays like Christmas and Halloween became prevalent. American style Christmas trappings and Santa Claus spread to not only countries of Christian backgrounds but also as far as France. Northern Mexico picked up American Halloween trick-or-treating. 

 Globalization: The increasing interconnectedness  of all parts of the world; opposed by many environmental and social justice groups.

 Multinational corporations: Business organizations with connections across political borders.

 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Agreement that created an essentially free trade zone between Mexico, Canada, and the United States, in hope of encouraging economic growth in all three nations; after difficult negotiations, went into effect January 1, 1994.

Global Warming: A controversial theory that suggests that there has been a gradual warming of the Earth's atmosphere which has been caused by the burning of fossil fuels and industrial pollutions. 


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